A Simple Guide to an Aztec Wargaming Army

Codex Mendoza - Older html version

Codex Mendoza - Updated .pdf

Aztec Shields, suits and back banners - Updated .pdf

Corteses Invasion of Mexico

The Siege of Tenochtitlan Notes

Where did it all go?

The majority of the information that was stored in this particular page has been removed pending a major rewrite, which is well advanced, though not likely to transfered online until September. This was due to a number of significant gaps in Aztec military understanding that I have been wrestling with for several months, particularly in regard to the differences between noble and non noble warriors, jaguars and eagles, banner styles, and warrior ranking. While there probably will never be a definitive answer to these puzzling aspects of the Aztec military unless more manuscripts emerge, I have settled fairly well upon a few major concepts upon which to hang a framework of ideas. The outline of the final project is listed below. I believe it will cover the majority of concepts, suits styles etc that will be of use to a wargamer. A good guide to the various suit, shield and banner styles is in a link above. It will allow you to paint any available miniature except an eagle and jaguar suit, which are not illustrated or discussed by me at any length in public documentation.

Table of Contents
0.0 INTRODUCTION AND NOTES ON NAMING CONVENTIONS
0.1 MAPPING ISSUES
0.2 Notes on Source Documents
0.2.1 Codex Mendoza
0.2.2 Matricula de Tributos
0.2.3 Primeros Memoriales
0.2.3 Florentine Codex
1.0 WHO WERE THE AZTECS?
2.0 THE CITY OF TENOCHTITLAN
2.1 A GENERAL DESCRIPTION
2.2 HOUSING
2.3 CANALS
2.4 CAUSEWAYS AND BRIDGES
2.5 THE RULERS
3.0 THE TRIBUTARY PROVINCES
3.1 TLATELOLCO
3.2 PETLACALCO
3.3 ACOLHUACAN
3.4 QUAHNAHUAC
3.5 HUAXTEPEC
3.6 QUAUHTITLAN
3.7 AXOCOPAN
3.8 ATOTONILCO (de PADRAZA)
3.9 HUEYPUCHTLA
3.10 OTOTONILCO (El Grande)
3.11 XILOTEPEC
3.12 QUAHUACAN
3.13 TULUCA
3.14 OCUILAN
3.15 MALINALCO and XOCOTITLAN
3.16 TLACHCO
3.17 TEPEQUACUILCO
3.18 CIHUATLAN
3.19 TLAPAN
3.20 TLALCOCAUATITLAN
3.21 QUIAUHTEOPAN
3.22 YOALTEPEC
3.23 CHALCO
3.24 TEPEACAC
3.25 COAYCTLAHUACAN
3.26 COYOLAPAN
3.27 TLACHQUIAVCO
3.28 TOCHTEPEC
3.29 XOCONOCHCO
3.30 QUAUHTOCHCO
3.31 CUETLAXTLAN
3.32 TLAPACOYAN
3.33 TLATLAUHQUITEPEC
3.34 TUCHPA
3.35 ATLAN
3.36 TZICOAC
3.37 OXITIPAN
3.4 GOVERNORSHIPS
4.0 A GUIDE TO WARRIOR SUITS
4.1 THE BASIC FEATHER COSTUME (SUIT)
4.1 WARRIOR BACKGROUND INFORMATION
4.2 WARRIOR SUITS
4.2.1 One Captive Warrior
4.2.2 Two Captive Warrior - Cuextecatl
4.2.3 Three Captive Warrior - Papalotl
4.2.4 Four Captive Warrior - Ocelotl
4.2.5 Five Captive Warrior - Otomi
4.2.6 Six Plus Captive Warrior - Cuachique - Shorn Ones
4.2.7 Tlacatecatl - Keeper of the House of Darts
4.3 PRIESTLY WARRIOR SUITS
4.3.1 One Captive Priests
4.3.2 Two Captive Priests - Cemiztac or Meztli
4.3.3 Three Captive Priests
4.3.4 Four Captive Priests - Cicitlallo Cuextecatl
4.3.5 Five Captive Priests - Momoyactli
4.3.6 Six Plus Captive Priests - Coyote
4.3.7 Priestly Commanders
4.3.8 Tzitzimitl / Tlacochcalcatl
4.4 OTHER WARRIOR SUITS
4.4.1 Patzactli
4.4.2 Eagle Suit - Cuauhtli
4.4.3 Crocodiles & Snakes
4.4.4 Quetzal Tototl Banner
4.4.5 Toxicocolli
4.4.6 Xipe battle Suit
4.4.7 Other Animal Motifs
4.4.8 Other Suit Types
4.4.9 Arrow Knights
4.5 WARRIORS WITHOUT SUITS
4.6 A QUICK GUIDE TO SHIELDS
4.6.1 A General Note on Shields
4.6.2 Shields with No Illustrations
4.6.3 Plain Unadorned Shields
4.6.4 Cuexyo
4.6.5 Cuexyo Water Variant
4.6.6 Xicalcoliuhqui
4.6.7 Tenochtitlan Shield - Ihuiteteyo or Tehuehuelli
4.6.8 Cuextecatl
4.6.9 Eagle Claw - Quauhtetepoyo
4.6.10 Piano Key
4.6.11 Disk Shield
4.6.12 Omega
4.6.13 Tear Drop
4.6.14 God Shields
4.6.15 Circle and Bar
4.6.16 Ocelot Claw -
4.6.17 Death's Head - Tozmiquizyo
4.6.18 Eagle's Head
4.6.19 Red Square
4.6.20 Otomi Shield
4.6.21 Face with Thick Lips - Ychimal
4.6.22 Quetzal Piztecqui - Cleft Quetzal
4.6.23 Citlallo - Starry Shield
4.6.24 Ihuite Couhqui - Feathered Fringe Shield
4.6.25 Tezacanecuilo - Curved Lip Ornament
4.6.26 Ixcoliuhqui - Curved Eye
4.6.27 Macpalo - Hand Shield
4.6.28 Ometoch - Two Rabbit
4.6.29
4.7 BANNERS
4.7.1 Pamitl Back Banners
4.7.2 Caquatonatiuh Banner - Sun Banner
4.7.3 Metztli Banner - Moon banner
4.7.4 Unknown Mendoza Banner
4.7.5 Ometochtlaviztli - Two Rabbits Banner
4.7.6 Tzatzaztli - Warping Frame Banner
4.7.7 Teucuitlavevetl - Golden Drum Banner
4.7.8 Copilli - Cone Banner
4.7.9 Tlecocomoctli - Crackling Fire Banner
4.7.10 Ivitelolotli - Feather Ball Banner
4.7.11 Aztatzutli - Heron Feather Hair Banner
4.7.12 Tlapal Itzmitl - Red Arrow banner
4.7.13 Xacalli - Straw Hut Banner
4.7.14 Caltzagualli - Masonry House Banner
4.7.15 Cacacalli - Grass Hut Banner
4.7.16 Tzipito - Fretful Child Banner
4.7.17 Tlaquimiloli - Bundle Banner
4.7.18 Mexayacatlaviztli - Thigh Skin Mask Banner
4.7.19 Tlazimaluapalli - Maguey Fibre Pulling Board
4.7.20 Vexolotl - Turkey Cock Banner
4.7.21 Yxtlapalpamitl - Transverse Pamitl Banner
4.7.22 Chimallaviztli - Shield Banner
4.7.23 Shield Banners
4.8 WEAPONS
4.8.1 Bow -
4.8.2 Sling -
4.8.3 Darts/Javelins (Atlatl)-
4.8.4 War Clubs - huitzoctli
4.8.5 Obsidian War Club - Maquahuitl
4.8.6 Spears -
4.8.7 Halberds -
4.8.8 Axes -
4.9 SHIELD BOATS
5.0 PAINTING YOUR AZTEC ARMY
5.1 COLOURS AND FEATHERS
5.2 LOINCLOTHS, SANDALS AND OTHER ORNAMENTATION
5.2.1 Loin Cloths
5.2.2 Sandals
5.2.3 Ear Rings, Necklaces
5.2.4 Hair Ties
5.3 JAGUAR and OCELOT SKINS
5.4 COTTON ARMOUR - Ichcahuipilli
5.5 FACIAL PAINTING PATTERNS
5.6 FORMATION COLOUR CODING
6.0 AZTEC ARMY ORGANISATION
6.2 MILITARY ORDERS
6.2.1 Eagle Warriors
6.2.2 Jaguar Warriors
6.2.3 Otomi
6.2.4 Cuachique
6.3 ARMY COMMAND
6.4 ARMY FORMATIONS
6.5 TRIBUTE SUIT NUMBERS
6.6 Warriors of Note
7.0 ENEMIES OF THE AZTECS
7.1 TLAXCALANS
7.1.1 Warrior Suits
7.1.2 Shields
7.1.3 Banners
7.14 National Army Banners
7.2 HUEXOTZINCO
7.3 CHOLULA
7.4 A BRIEF LOOK AT THE SPANISH
7.4.1 Numbers
7.4.2 Armour And Weaponry
7.4.3 Cavalry
7.4.4 Artillery
7.4.5 Mobile Towers
7.4.6 Ships
7.4.7 The Army Banner
7.4.8 Musicians
7.4.9 Personalities
7.4.10 War Dogs
7.5 OTHER PROVINCES
7.5.1 Chalco
7.5.2 Cuitlahuacans
7.5.3 Mizquicans
7.5.4 Colhuacan
7.5.5 Itztapalapan
7.5.6 Ocuilan
7.5.7 Xiquipilco
7.5.8 Xochimilcans
7.6 FOREIGN POWERS
7.6.1 Coatlicamac
7.6.2 Metztitlan
7.6.3 Michoacan
7.6.4 Teotitlan
7.6.5 Yopitzinco
8.0 THE MAJOR BATTLES
8.1 CINTLA
8.2 THE NIGHT OF SORROWS - La Noche Triste
8.3 THE BATTLE FOR TENOCHTITLAN
9.0 BIBLIOGRAPHY